The most important multilateral agreement is the NATO Status of Forces Agreement, which applies between NATO partners to operations on the territory of other NATO countries. States participating in NATO`s Partnership for Peace (PfP) may accede to the PPF Troop Maintenance Agreement of 19 June 1995 (BGBl. 1998 II p.1340). This agreement extends the scope of the NATO Status of Forces Agreement to operations in PfP partner countries. Military operations under the auspices of the European Union will now be subject to the EU Status of Troops Agreement, signed on 17 November 2003 in Brussels by representatives of the Member States and ratified by Germany in June 2005. A Forces Agreement (SOFA) is an agreement between a host country and a foreign nation that deploys armed forces in that country. SOFAs are often part of a comprehensive security agreement with other types of military agreements. A SOFA is not a safety device; it establishes the rights and privileges of foreign personnel who set up in a host country to support the strengthening of security measures.  Under international law, a status-of-force agreement differs from military occupation. The right of presence of former Soviet forces on the territory of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) was governed by the Treaty on Relations between the GDR and the Soviet Union of 20 September 1955.
The subsequent withdrawal of Soviet forces was signed by two treaties concluded in 1990 with the former Soviet Union (Treaty on conditions of temporary residence and arrangements for the gradual withdrawal of Soviet forces from the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany of 12 October 1990 (BGBl. 1991 II p.256) and the Agreement on Certain Provisional Measures of 9 October 1990 (BGBl. 1990 II p.1653). 1991 II p.447). The total withdrawal of former Soviet forces from Germany was achieved in 1994. Understanding the impact of SOFA on you, as well as some fundamental differences in the law between the United States and Germany, will ensure a more enjoyable overseas visit and avoid unpleasant and potentially costly mistakes. The temporary deployment in Germany of the armed forces of the PfP States and other third countries is subject to the conclusion of an agreement under the Visiting Forces Act of 20 July 1995 (BGBl. 1995 II p.554, BGBl. 2002 II p.2482). Under Article 1 of that law, the Federal Government may conclude such agreements with foreign States on the entry and short-term presence of its armed forces in Germany for the purposes of exercises, land transits and training by decree-law. So far, the Federal Government has concluded such agreements with Poland (Agreement of 23 July and the Czech Republic (Agreement of 31 July 2003).
An agreement on visiting forces is similar to an agreement on the status of troops, except that the former only temporarily cover troops that are not stationed there. The presence of foreign armed forces on German territory requires a special legal basis. A distinction should be made between the right of presence and the law governing that presence. . . .